Juno will study chameleon neutrinos

Reblogged from Science on the Net

Last week in China was launched Juno, an international experiment that aims to reveal once and for all the mysteries of neutrinos, together with two other future experiments planned worldwide, Hyper-Kamiokandein Japan and LBNF at FERMILAB, and Italy could not miss. Hundreds of scientists from around the world gathered in these days at the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Beijing, in order to give birth to an international collaboration for the construction of a gigantic underground neutrino detector with liquid scintillator, which exploits a technology that is similar to that used by the experiment Borexino at Gran Sasso National Laboratories. We have talked with Gioacchino Ranucci of INFN, deputy coordinator of the collaboration. JUNO’s collaboration, in addition to China and Italy, also includes Czech Republic, France, Finland, Germany, Russia and the United States.

“Juno’s goal is to study the properties of neutrinos, that transform themselves into one another, which makes them like chameleons” said Ranucci. Today, we have three families of neutrinos, electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos and tau neutrinos, and what we observe is the transformation of one into the other, which is called “property of oscillation.” Certainly, this property is adjusted by a matrix, the mixing matrix, which gives the parameters expressed in trigonometric form, for instance as angles that, together with the mass differences between each couple of neutrino types, determine the probability of transformation of a neutrino from a family to another. It is therefore precisely the properties we want to investigate.”

Read More

 

Annunci

Italian physics and the Middle East

Reblogged from Science on the Net

On May 12, the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste and the International Centre for Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) signed a scientific collaboration agreement. Aim of this cooperation is the development and implementation of Italian technology for the radio-frequency cavities for SESAME’s storage ring – radio-frequency cavities serve to re-supply the electrons with the energy they lose when emitting synchrotron light.

“SESAME is an ambitious project for the construction of the first synchrotron light source in the Middle East,” explains Giorgio Paolucci, scientific director of SESAME. “Today there are 12 synchrotrons in Europe (and a total of about 60 in the world) but none in the Middle East, although the need for them was recognized by eminent scientists such as the Pakistani Nobel Laureate Abdus Salam about 30 years ago”. The Centre, which is intergovernmental, brings together Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority and Turkey (the Members), thus providing an extraordinary example of collaboration between entities with very diverse cultural, political and religious backgrounds.

“Perhaps the most significant feature of this project is that politics does not in any way interfere in the scientific research,” says Paolucci.

The project was born in the late nineties, thanks to the efforts of several scientists in and outside the region. These scientists proposed to use components of the BESSY I light facility in West Berlin, which was being decommissioned, to set up a synchrotron light source in the Middle East (following the re-unification of Germany it was decided to build a larger particle accelerator in East Berlin). The project then evolved and though a few of the BESSY I components, which have been greatly upgraded, are being used, SESAME is constructing a completely new 2.5 GeV storage ring, thus making it a state-of-the-art research centre.

Read more

Italy and the use of Synchrotron Radiation in Biomedicine

Reblogged from Science on the net

799px-Aust.-Synchrotron-Interior-Panorama,-14.06.2007

The University of Milano Bicocca is a member of SYRA3, a Cost Action started in 2013 concerning Innovative Methods in Radiotherapy and Radiosurgery, using Synchrotron Radiation in Biomedicine and Molecular sciences. SYRA3 focuses on brain tumors and disorders of the central nervous system, studying the power of synchrotron radiation, in particular using the Grenoble synchrotron.

A Cost Action is an initiative that allows the coordination of nationally-funded science and technology research projects. It aims to reduce the fragmentation in European research and to open the European Research Area to cooperation worldwide.  In this respect, SYRA3 is intrinsically multidisciplinary. The purpose of this project is to create a network of physicists, biologists, doctors, chemists, in order to study the potential of a tool as powerful as the synchrotron.

Read more

Scrivere di Fisica: qualche dritta

800px-Plastic_Protractor_Polarized_05375La settimana scorsa era il grande giorno. Era prevista la lezione del corso “comunicare la fisica” del nostro master, il momento in cui avremmo avuto i feedback delle nostre stime: in particolare per chi segue questo blog, di Moliendo cafè e Fin che la placcava, lasciala andare. Riassumo qui alcune delle dritte che ci hanno dato i nostri “profs” per scrivere di fisica – ma più in generale di scienza – evitando di ritrovarsi con prodotti approssimativi e grossolani.
Penso possa servire se chi legge intende occuparsi di queste faccende con serietà:

Cominciamo con il “contorno” dell’opera, come si sottopone un documento tramite email. Anzitutto è opportuno mettere un nome ordinato al file, non nomi generici del tipo “stime Cristina”, ma qualcosa che contraddistingua il tuo documento, come ad esempio la data e accanto il cognome dell’autore. Secondariamente, per entrare nel merito del documento, è buona norma scrivere la data, il nome dell’autore e poi sviluppare il pezzo, curandosi di salvare il tutto in pdf.

Ma veniamo ai contenuti. Il punto centrale è il caro vecchio rasoio di Occam: entia non sunt moltiplicanda praeter necessitatem, cioè non introdurre elementi che non servono. Sembra una banalità, ma spesso rileggendo un pezzo io per prima mi rendo conto che molte cose si possono tagliare. E inaspettatamente, fare ciò può risultare più complesso che scrivere un’ulteriore pagina di dati.

Un altro consiglio utile è usare delle immagini evocative, qualcosa che aiuti il lettore a figurarsi quantitativamente le questioni di cui si parla. La cosa importante è però non dimenticarsi di riprenderle nel corso del pezzo, per una maggior incisività.

Inoltre – sempre per aumentare l’efficacia del pezzo- è importante mettere dei link alle parole chiave del pezzo (o del post) che rimandi ad ipertesti, come approfondimento su questioni di cui non si è potuto parlare (a causa del rasoio di Occam di cui sopra).

Infine – last but not least – sfruttare l’attualità. Spesso, far riferimento a questioni che hanno toccato il senso comune (senza mancare di tatto, of course) può aiutare il lettore a figurarsi quello che sta leggendo e soprattutto a ricordarlo meglio una volta terminato l’articolo.

Nella speranza che fare giornalismo e comunicazione scientifica non sia solo intrattenimento. Anche nel profondo dinamismo del nostro secolo.

Credits:Wikipedia Commons, by Nevit Dilmen