Africa, troppi farmaci da venditori non autorizzati

OggiScienza

In molti casi i drug shop sono la soluzione più facile per accedere ai test diagnostici rapidi per la malaria. Crediti immagine: USAID Kenya

SALUTE – Mustafa Muhammad è un 50enne padre di dieci figli che vive nella periferia di Kano, la seconda città più grande della Nigeria. Ogni mese spende circa 3 dollari per i farmaci per la sua famiglia. “Per lo più comprando paracetamolo”, spiega a giornalista Paul Webster sulle pagine di The Lancet, “per gestire la malaria e come antidolorifico”. I medicinali, afferma Mustafa, provengono da uno dei numerosi fornitori di medicinali del luogo senza licenza, conosciuti localmente come “drug shop”, negozi di farmaci, che però non sono farmacie, dal momento che non vi è nessun farmacista titolato, o comunque nessun personale medico formato e autorizzato a vendere medicinali. “Ci sono anche delle farmacie andando un po’ più lontano”, continua Mustafa, “ma lì il…

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Mobile health e app: l’orizzonte si avvicina

Reblogged from eColloquia

È innegabile che uno dei maggiori benefici dell’avvento di internet in ambito sanitario è la possibilità di rendere meno distanti chi ha bisogno di cure e chi le sa fornire. Qualcosa che oggi è ancora una sfida, un divenire, più che qualche cosa di compiuto. La parola chiave di questo numero è “Orizzonti” e in questo senso il filo rosso che ha determinato la scelta delle app qui proposte riflette uno dei principali orizzonti della cosiddetta mobile health (m-health): permettere ai medici di arrivare dove altrimenti non sarebbe possibile, non solo in termini di distanza chilometrica. Una prospettiva non individuale, ma di salute collettiva, nell’ottica di un accesso alle cure sempre più uguale.

Qui di seguito proponiamo 5 tentativi di accorciare questo “orizzonte”, fra app e infrastrutture digitali, alcune sviluppate in Italia.

(vai a pagina 42)

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Italy on the first line against Multiple Sclerosis

Reblogged from Science on the Net

Italy is one of the most important country concerning the research on multiple sclerosis and the latest news about it come from the recent annual ACTRIMS-ECTRIMS meeting in Boston. A collaborative group led by Massimiliano Calabrese from the University of Verona was amongst the 20 funded projects across the world from the first announcement of Progressive MS Alliance – an international alliance of associations on MS, formed to accelerate the development of new treatments for this disease – that has provided 30 million dollars. This project will be carried out through the collaboration between Roberta Magliozzi from Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) of Rome, Massimiliano Calabrese and Salvatore Monaco, from University of Verona, Richard Reynolds from the Imperial College London and Owain Howell of the University of Swansea (Wales).

“To understand the importance of our project,” says Roberta Magliozzi “we have to understand the mechanism by which the disease develops.” Multiple sclerosis usually comprises two phases: a first phase, relapsing-remitting, in which first inflammatory attacks appear and slowly compromise the nervous system. Attack after attack, the situation begin to crystallize, the neurological damage became more and more severe and the patient gets into the second progressive phase for which no efficient therapies are available at the moment. “Our project just fits in the gap between these two phases,” explains Magliozzi. “We want to identify early diagnostic biomarkers of the progressive phase of the disease in order to  block as soon as possible those attacks that lead to permanent neurological disability.”

Not certainly a simple kind of research, which requires an international collaboration between research centres of excellence. One of the main trait d’union is Magliozzi itself, who has spent her PhD at the Imperial College in London, analysing the relationship between meningeal inflammation and cortical grey matter lesions in progressive MS. Since she returned to Italy to join the Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience at Istituto Superiore di Sanità, she continued to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in MS cortical pathology. Meanwhile, a team of neurologists from the University of Verona was doing some experiments on live patients. These studies using MRI have allowed researchers to understand that all patients that had showed lesions in the cortical grey matter also showed a more severe course of the disease. “When we realize that the results obtained in the laboratories of London, Rome and those taken in Verona were similar, we began to coordinate our studies,” says Magliozzi “and we decided to propose a collaboration. With this collaboration, the project was born and was then selected among the top 20 from MS Alliance to be funded.”

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Antimicrobial resistance throughout the world

Reblogged from Science on the Net

Through the years and the development of pharmacology, Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing public health threat of broad concern to countries. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) produced a global report on surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in collaboration with Member States. This report monitors the situation worldwide, showing that the percentage of antibiotic resistance to various diseases is growing year after year all over the world, especially in developed countries, and the resistance to common bacteria has reached alarming levels in many parts of the world. It indicates that many of the available treatment options for common infections in some settings are becoming ineffective.

According to those who prepared the report, “a post-antibiotic era—in which common infections and minor injuries can kill—far from being an apocalyptic fantasy, is instead a very real possibility for the 21st century.”

Particularly, the report focuses on antibacterial resistance (ABR), which involves bacteria that causes many common infections for which treatment is becoming difficult. The main focus of this report is therefore on ABR for which knowledge, support and concerted action are inadequate. The report considers seven types of antibacterial resistance pathologies and their respective drug treatments:

– Escherichia Coli vs. the third-generation Cephalosporins and vs. Fluoroquinolones

– Kleibsiella Pneumoniae vs. the third-generation Cephalosporins and vs. Carbapenems

– Staphylococcus Aureus vs. Methiccilin

– Strptococcus Pneumoniae vs. Penicillin

– Non Typhoidal Salmonella vs. Fluoroquinolones

– Shigella Species vs. Fluoroquinolones

– Neisseria Gonorrhoeae vs. 3rd generation Cephalosporins

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